underwater microphones

From: Pete Scheifele (scheifel@uconnvm.uconn.edu)
Date: Thu Mar 29 2001 - 09:15:23 EST

Dear Jesse

I'm sorry for the delay in answering your mail. I've had a bit of truoble
at this end of the net.

In 1880 Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered piezoelectricity which is used
in microphones and transducers (hydrophones) (which, interestingly enough
was used by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 to make the telephone).
Hydrophones were first used five days after the sinking of the Titanic in
1912 for echo ranging. In 1918 the first echos were received from a
submarine. Much underwater sound work (studies) were done over then next
20 years and in 1938 the first marine mammal studies began to be done using
hydrophones. Noteable figures such as Dr. Schevill, Dr. Bill Watkins, Dr.
John C. Lilly, Drs. David and Melba Caldwell and many other were ppioneers
in the field.

I hope this helps...
Dr. Pete

>I'd like to know who invented the underwater microphones that are used to
>listen to whale songs. Could you also tell me when they were first used?
>Jesse Weiss
>Dallin School
>Arlington, MA
Peter M. Scheifele LCDR USN (Ret.)
Director of Bioacoustic Research
NURC Operations Manager
Director of Marine Education Programs
National Undersea Research Center,
North Atlantic and Great Lakes
University of Connecticut
860-405-9121/9103 (Voice)
860-445-2969 (FAX)
scheifel@uconnvm.uconn.edu / acousticp2@juno.com

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