Subject: Re: whale feeding

Dagmar_Fertl@smtp.mms.gov
Mon, 30 Sep 96 07:09:14 EST

     Mary Ann, 
     
     
     Thank you for your interesting question regarding the hypothesis that 
     toothed whales might use intense sounds to stun their prey.  This 
     hypothesis was put forth in detail by Dr. Ken Norris in his paper with 
     B. Mohl, and is still something that continues to be studied with 
     great interest.  Predatory impulse sounds have been recorded from 
     bottlenose dolphins, killer whales, and sperm whales out in the wild.  
     The loud sounds are sometimes present during predation on fish, but 
     also during social behavior.  Scientists are still looking at trying 
     to figure out the function of these loud sounds.  I think that the 
     prey stunning hypothesis was particularly attractive for explaining 
     how some sperm whales, with malformed jaws could still effectively 
     feed on squid.  But again, this is still highly speculative.
     
     The following are some papers that might be of interest, and can be 
     obtained by interlibrary loan through a university library.  You might 
     also want to watch the movie with Don Knots "The Incredible Mr. 
     Limpet"...
     
     Marten, K., K.S. Norris, P.W.B. Moore, and K.A. Englund.  1988.  Loud 
     impulse sounds in odontocete predation and social behavior. Pages 
     567-579 _in_ Animal Sonar: Processes and Performance.  Edited by P.E. 
     Nachtigall and P.W.B. Moore.  NATO ASI Series, Series A: Life Sciences 
     Vol. 156.
     
     
     Norris, K.S. and B. Mohl.  1983.  Can odontocetes debilitate prey with 
     sound?  American Naturalist 122: 85.
     
     Smolker, R. and A. Richards.  1988.  Loud sounds during feeding in 
     Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins.  Pages 703-706 _in_ Animal Sonar: 
     Processes and Performance.  Edited by P.E. Nachtigall and P.W.B. 
     Moore.  NATO ASI Series, Series A: Life Sciences Vol. 156.

     Zagaeski, M.  1987.  Some observations on the prey stunning hypothesis.  
     Marine Mammal Science 3: 275-279.

______________________________ Reply Separator _________________________________
Subject: whale feeding
Author:  Magus615@aol.com at ~smtp
Date:    9/29/96 10:05 PM


   I have read that there is a possibility that sperm whales feed by sound
blasts that stun their prey.  I believe that some dolphins are thought to 
capture prey in this way also.  Could you direct me to the current research 
in this area?  Thank you, Mary Ann Merkel  (Magus614@aol.com)