Seabits 4.10 (fwd)

From: mike williamson (williams@www1.wheelock.edu)
Date: Tue Oct 03 2000 - 13:03:59 EDT


S E A B I T S
New England Aquarium Monthly e-mail Newsletter
<http://www.neaq.org/>
Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2000
Copyright, New England Aquarium 2000
------------------------------------------------
Greetings! As the leaves begin to turn to red, orange and gold, we
New Englanders are preparing for crisper mornings, earlier sunsets
and apple picking. This month's spooktacular edition of Seabits
brings you haunted happenings from the world of water. Learn about
nature's creative costumes, find out what's lurking on some remote
Costa Rican beaches and discover the multiple personalities of some
curious ocean creatures. Per usual, send an e-mail with your thoughts
and ideas. We're going to start posting some reader comments on our
website soon, so tell us what you think and see what others have to
say.
-Sue Knapp, substitute editor <sknapp@neaq.org>

In this issue:
  Watery Words
  Stories
    -Masters of Disguise
    -Giants on the Beach
    -Cuttlefish: Not Cuddly, Not Fish
  Out on the Net
  Updates
    -Reader Comments Going on our Website
  Announcements
    -Traveling Tidepool Whereabouts
  Calendar
  Subscribe/Unsubscribe
  Contact Us

*********** WATERY WORDS *********

I stand amid the roar
Of a surf-tormented shore,
And I hold within my hand
Grains of golden sand -
How few! yet how they creep
Through my fingers to the deep

- Edgar Allen Poe, from the poem A Dream Within A Dream

*********** STORIES ***********

--------------Masters of Disguise-------------------
by Leslie Macmillan, Roving Reporter

The scaring season is upon us, and with it comes the inevitable
question of what to wear on Halloween. But imagine having an array
of costumes at your disposal that you didn't have to go out and
buyŠor makeŠor even make a decision about, that you could change into
and out of at whim. Enter chameleons: the original masters of
disguise.

You can see this changeable creature as part of the Nyanja exhibit at
the New England Aquarium, where a Jackson's chameleon is on display.
If you're lucky, you'll get to see this one-year old female in a
blaze of color. "When they mate, you'll see all kinds of colors-reds,
yellows." says Tanya Taranovski, Senior Aquarist at the New England
Aquarium. "And when they're angry, they'll turn black and yellow and
rear up with their front arms extended, like a big Frankenstein
monster."

Besides courtship and combat, chameleons also change color in order
to camouflage themselves from predators. This means assuming the
hues of their environment, usually either a deep green or brown.
There are 130 species of chameleons, which are preyed on mostly by
birds, although in the part of East Africa where Jackson's are from,
snakes are the main predators.

Chameleons are so well adapted for defense, in fact, that this is
reflected in other physical characteristics as well. They are able
to move their scale-covered eyes independently of one another,
allowing them to see predators from all angles, and males have three
horns, used for combat as well as sexual display. An adult male
Jackson's chameleon will grow to six inches in length, twelve
including horns and tail. Despite their well-adapted physique,
however, chameleons are delicate creatures and are frightened by
people as well as by natural predators. That's why particular care
has to be taken when displaying them.

"Exhibiting chameleons is a challenge," says Tanya. "The trick is to
make sure they feel comfortable and have enough hiding places." At
the Aquarium, the chameleon enclosure is dark and a special viewing
screen has been installed so that the animals are not aware of people
walking by. Other special measures include lots of UV light, and a
large tank-4x4 feet. "They need big enclosures," says Tanya. "They
get stressed out if they feel closed in." And they stress out about
other things as well.

"They're picky eaters and get bored very easily. We always have to
try to keep it new and different and exciting for them." New and
exciting may mean a cockroach or grasshopper, to supplement their
usual diet of crickets, mealworms (beetle larvae), wax worms (moth
larvae), moths and millipedes. The insects are sprinkled with
vitamin supplements and calcium, which young chameleons-and all
reptiles-need for growing bones. If you are lucky, you might be able
to see one eating, when it will unfold its six-inch long tongue to
catch an insect. Chameleons are also particular about their water.
They won't drink standing water and yet require a lot of it, so the
tanks must be heavily misted-enough to give the plants inside a good
soaking. "We have these long, slender-leafed figs, which are perfect
for drinking from. The water drips down to the bottom and the
chameleon slurps it up."

Although the chameleon at the Aquarium is from East Africa, most are
from Madagascar where their "habitat is heavily impacted," according
to Tanya. This, combined with the fact that chameleons have a slow
gestation period-an entire year-makes for a population that does not
rapidly increase. The chameleon on display was born in captivity,
but some are taken from their native habitats only to live a
miserable existence in an unsuitable cage.

"You see chameleons in the pet trade, but they make terrible pets.
They've very high-maintenance animals. For example, you can't just
leave them with water in a bowl. If you have one, you pretty much
have to devote all your time to it. You can't go work for 12 hours
and come home and expect to have a live chameleon."

And they're not exactly cuddly. "You can't handle them at all," says
Tanya. "They can die in your hand from stress." To avoid touching
the animal directly, Aquarium keepers will cut off the branch the
chameleon is sitting on. With all this special care the chameleon at
the Aquarium is alive and well. How can you tell a chameleon is
living the good life? "When they're happy, their tails are curled up
nicely."

Droplet: Jackson's chameleons are among the few reptile species that
give birth to live young. After a gestation period of up to a year, a
mother can give birth to anywhere from 10 to 50 babies at once.

------------Giants on the Beach------------------
by Leslie Macmillan, Roving Reporter

Can you imagine watching a dinosaur walk through your backyard?
Watching a giant leatherback sea turtle emerge from the ocean onto
the beach at night is something akin to that, says Sherrie Floyd, a
Senior Aquarist at the New England Aquarium. A few months ago she
had the opportunity to witness this many times, while working as part
of a conservation project with Asociación ANAI, at the
Gandoca/Manzanillo National Wildlife Refuge in Costa Rica. At
Gandoca, where the average leatherback is 5'11" and weighs 700-1300
pounds, it's not hard to imagine how this sight could inspire awe.

Sherrie came to the beaches of Gandoca by way of a fellowship from
the Center for Ecosystem Survival, awarded to only two recipients:
one selected from applicants from West Coast colleges and one AZA
Keeper (American Zoo and Aquarium Association) member. At the
Refuge, the research is twofold. Researchers patrol the beach,
looking for nesting females. "The goal is to relocate the eggs to
hatcheries," says Sherrie, "where they will be safe from both
poachers and natural predators." Another group monitors the hatchery
for hatchlings, and makes sure they are safely released at sea.

Sounds like fun, but beach duty is not what it may seem. First of
all, female turtles don't nest during the day, so beach patrols are
conducted only at night. "We worked in two shifts, 10 p.m. to 2 a.m.
and 2 to 6 a.m.-four hours of walking up and down the beach in 100%
humidity, often in torrential downpours. You're faced with many
physical challenges," Sherrie says, laughing. As for what to wear,
it was a toss up between staying cool and being protected from the
incessant sand flies and mosquitoes-since insect repellent was out of
the question. Because researchers handle turtles, there's a risk it
could be absorbed into the animal's skin. But despite the discomfort,
says Sherrie, "Once you see your first sea turtle, you understand why
it's all worth it."

"The sight of a leatherback turtle making its way from the ocean onto
the beach at night is something I can't describe. It's just
incredible." Researchers on beach patrol look for several things.
First, they scan the sand for tracks, which tell them that a turtle
is nearby. And the tracks are unmistakable. "It'll look like a
tractor just pulled right out of the ocean and onto the beach."

When a turtle is first spotted, Sherrie says that researchers have to
"contain their excitement. It's very important to not disturb the
animal." Once the turtle begins to build its nest, however, "it goes
into a trance-like mode" and researchers are then able to approach
it. The nest building can take up to 45 minutes, during which time
researchers are able to measure and tag the animal, as well as
measure her nest, which will be recreated later in the hatchery.

After the nest is built, researchers then look for behaviors that
will tell them when the turtle is about to lay her eggs-usually
folding one back flipper over the other. A plastic bag held under the
turtle catches her eggs as she lays them. At this point, the team
breaks up: one researcher takes the eggs to the hatchery, another
stays with the turtle to make sure that it's not disturbed, and one
or two more will continue to patrol the beach, so not to miss any
nesting turtles.

Researchers also work in the hatchery, a fenced-off section of beach
where the nests that were so carefully measured are rebuilt to be
exactly as they were found. Although hatchlings typically emerge
from their nests at night, the hatchery must be carefully monitored
24 hours a day. Hatchlings will occasionally come out during the
day, and can "fry within minutes" if exposed to the sun. "As soon as
they hatch, we put them in a bucket, make sure they're active and
release them on the beach. But we have to be careful, because
natural predators like sharks will literally line up at the waterline
waiting."

And the predators must be outsmarted. "We have to make sure we
release the hatchlings in a different place every time, so hungry
sharks don't get used to a certain location. You have to be kind of
strategic."

During the 2000 breeding season, which runs from March-July, the
Refuge recorded well over 1,000 hatchlings. Also rewarding was the
opportunity to work with so many dedicated people, says Sherrie, and
to become immersed in another culture. Members of the project
boarded in residents' homes, and got an intimate look at life in a
small rain forest village. "The bonding that occurred despite a
complete language barrier was amazing."

Sherrie hopes that her work with the project will produce a lasting
affiliation between the Refuge and New England Aquarium. "I'm
thinking of ways we can remain involved. All seven sea turtle species
are either endangered or threatened. In teaming up with a successful
organization like ANAI, our Aquarium can take pride in contributing
to an extremely worthy conservation project."

Droplet: Twenty years ago, the prospects for leatherback (Dermochelys
coriacea) survival in the Ganoca nesting beaches of Costa Rica were
grim: over 99% of turtle eggs were poached every year from the
nesting beaches at Gandoca. Today, Gandoca boats a 90% nest
protection rate, due to increased law enforcement, but also because
of the efforts of Asociacion ANAI, which in 1985 established the sea
turtle conservation and research project as part of the Refuge.

------------ Cuttlefish: Not Cuddly, Not Fish ------------
by Rachel VanHouten, Promotions Coordinator

In a few New England Aquarium exhibits, you gets the impression,
looking into the tanks, that maybe what's in the tank is looking BACK
at you. Okay, it's not that unusual with the seals, or the otters. As
mammals we're programmed to respond to cute, fuzzy animals with
large, expressive eyes. The penguins bear a resemblance to people at
a formal wedding, but they don't show a lot of interest in the human
realm. But invertebrates? Can we really relate to something that
doesn't even have a backbone? There is one species that may fit the
bill-the cuttlefish.

A cuttlefish is a formidable-looking creature, suitable for a
supporting role in a "Men in Black" sequel. They have arms covered
with suction discs, two extendable tentacles for grasping food, and
two well-developed eyes with W-shaped pupils. Under all those arms is
the muscular funnel, which can contract and jet-propel the animal
away from danger in a flash. The mouth is actually a beak, with a
sharp point that can be used to tear prey into bite-sized pieces.
Behind the arms, beak and funnel is their body: an oval pillow edged
with an undulating fin that allows the cuttlefish to hover almost
motionless, like a living helicopter.

They belong to the family Sepiidae, suborder Decapoda, order
Dibranchia, class Cephalopoda, phylum Mollusca. So from all that
Latin we can ascertain that they have ten appendages (decapoda), are
basically "heads with feet" (cephalopoda) and are molluscs, so they
have some relation to mussels and snails. They aren't fish at all, as
their name implies. Their immediate relatives are the octopus, squid
and chambered nautilus. Unlike these close relatives, however,
cuttlefish sport an internal calcium carbonate shell. If you have a
pet bird at home you may recognize cuttlebone as the small
surfboard-shaped item you put in the cage as a beak sharpener, the
internal "shell" of a cuttlefish.

At feeding time, an aquarist lowers a flexible stick that looks like
a straw into the tank from behind the scenes. On the end dangles a
single shrimp, nicely peeled and prepared. One cuttlefish hovering
nearby shoots out its tentacles in a flash and the shrimp disappears
into the tangle of arms. Not one to wait for the cocktail sauce. In
the wild, cuttlefish eat small molluscs like clams and snails, crabs,
shrimp, fish, even other cuttlefish. In turn, sharks and fish eat
cuttlefish.

The most amazing and intriguing thing of all about cuttlefish is
their ability to change colors instantly. Each skin cell, or
chromatophore, can be altered independently and instantaneously. When
you look very closely at the cuttlefish's skin, it looks like a
kaleidoscope of various browns, yellows and deep purples. Scientists
are deciphering a cuttlefish language spoken by color changes,
patterns and gestures that hint at a complex social life. Someday we
may have a better idea of what they communicate through their
coloration. The next time you are visiting the Aquarium, take a
closer look at this expressive, fascinating creature. Just don't be
too surprised if you can't figure out which of the two of you is on
display.

Droplet: The cuttlebone has spaces that fill with gas and water to
regulate a cuttlefish's buoyancy. If the animal needs to rise in the
water column, gas will enter the chambers. If the animal needs to
sink, water will replace the gas, making the animal heavier. This
allows the animal to hover and move up and down in the water with
apparent ease.

**** OUT ON THE NET ***************

For additional information, you might want to check out the following
websites. Some of these links represent partners in aquatic
conservation and animal husbandry; others are simply resources we
think may help you enrich your perspective on our watery world. By
listing these websites, the New England Aquarium is not automatically
endorsing or verifying the accuracy of their content unless
explicitly stated.

Chameleons
<http://natureexplorer.com/WR/WR7.html>
<http://www.embl-heidelberg.de/~uetz/families/Chamaeleonidae.html>

Leatherbacks
<http://www.neaq.org/corner/res/leatherback.html>
<www.turtles.org>
<http://www.seaworld.org/Sea_Turtle/seaturtle.html>

Cuttlefish
<www.aqua.org/animals/species/procto.html>
<http://is.dal.ca/~ceph/TCP/index.html>
<http://www.cuttlefishcapital.com.au/>

********** UPDATES *******************

In the last issue of Seabits (Volume 4, Issue 9), I asked for
comments, suggestions and recipes. Lo and behold, I received
instructions for "Foot-Warmer Corn Chowder" from a faithful fan.
Check out our website at <www.neaq.org> and click on "Beyond
Exhibits" to see how to keep warm this winter.

********** ANNOUNCEMENTS *************

NEW HANDS-ON MARINE MAMMAL PROGRAMS!
BEHIND THE SCENES WITH MARINE MAMMALS (available starting October 2, 2000)
Join us for a behind the scenes view of the ship Discovery and get a
glimpse of our food prep and training areas. Participants enjoy a
front row seat for a sea lion training session. A trainer will answer
any questions you have about marine mammals and how they are trained.
$20 per non-member (does not include Aquarium visit). $15 per person
for members. Recommended for ages 3 and older. A paying adult must
accompany all children ages 5 and younger. Call (617) 973-5206 for
reservations and more information.

TRAINER FOR A MORNING (available starting October 6, 2000)
Spend the morning with a marine mammal trainer to learn first hand
how we care for and train the seals, sea lions and sea otters.
Participants help out behind the scenes with some daily tasks like
preparing food and vitamins and washing buckets. Participants will
also go on exhibit with a trainer to observe the training sessions.
It's a busy morning, but there is always time for a sea lion kiss.
Program cost includes Aquarium admission. $150 per non-member. $125
per person for members. Recommended for ages 10 and older.
Unfortunately, this program is not wheelchair accessible. Call (617)
973-5206 for reservations and more information.

FUN AND GAMES WITH SEA LIONS (available starting November 1, 2000)
Part of this interactive program occurs during a public presentation
where the participants engage in a variety of games and activities
with a sea lion. Get a glimpse into how sea lions think. The
particular activities vary from day to day, depending upon the sea
lion involved and the ages of the participants. The program lasts 1
hour: 30 minutes of orientation then 30 minutes of sea lion fun. Each
participant is involved in some but not necessarily all the
activities. A few of the games might include soccer, shell game, slug
race (person/sea lion pretend to be seals) or mimicking/mirroring.
$50 per non-member (does not include Aquarium visit). $40 per person
for members. Recommended for ages 3 and older. A paying adult must
accompany all children 5 and younger. Call (617) 973-5206 for
reservations and more information.

Where in the World Is Our Traveling Tidepool?
** October 7 from 1-4 p.m. Boston's City Hall plaza for MixFest for
Kids. Nationally recognized performers, activities, giveaways and
much more, sponsored by Mix 98.5 FM.
** October 14-15 CollegeFest at the Hynes Convention Center in
Boston. A two-day festival featuring area businesses, great prizes, a
dating game and live music. For more information, e-mail
<info@collegefest.com> or call (617) 859-5767.
** October 21 from 12-2 p.m. We'll be at the Westgate Mall in Brockton, MA.

********** OCTOBER 2000 CALENDAR ********************

Saturday, October 7, The World of Reptiles Preschool Explorers'
Class, 9:30 a.m. Recommended for ages 3 to 5. This one-hour program
combines a story, a hands-on activity, and a take-home art project or
closer look at live animals. $4 per person for members; $8 per person
for non-members. An adult must accompany children -- no fee for adult
participant. The non-member price does not include Aquarium
admission. Younger siblings are welcome free of charge, but we ask
that you include them in your reservation for an accurate head-count.
Call (617) 973-5206 for reservations.

Saturday, October 7, Winthrop Family Field Trip, 10 a.m. Spend a few
hours with Aquarium educators at Yerrill Beach exploring habitats and
raising your awareness about local environmental issues. Activities
will be based on age and interest so every family member will have a
unique learning experience. Recommended for ages 5 and up. $6 per
person for members, $12 per person for non-members. Non-member price
does not include Aquarium admission. Call (617) 973-5206 to register.
Meet at Yerrill Beach. All who register receive directions.

Sunday, October 8, The World of Reptiles Preschool Explorers' Class,
9:30 a.m. Recommended for ages 3 to 5. This one-hour program combines
a story, a hands-on activity, and a take-home art project or closer
look at live animals. $4 per person for members; $8 per person for
non-members. An adult must accompany children -- no fee for adult
participant. The non-member price does not include Aquarium
admission. Younger siblings are welcome free of charge, but we ask
that you include them in your reservation for an accurate head-count.
Call (617) 973-5206 for reservations.

Thursday, October 12, FREE Lecture, 7 p.m. Investing in Fisheries
Stocks: Market-based Measures to Conserve Marine Resources with
Robert Repetto, Ph.D., 1998 Pew Marine Conservation Fellow, Senior
Research Fellow, Marine Policy Center, Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institute. How can we utilize economics to preserve fisheries stocks
and the livelihood of fishermen? This free lecture is held in the
Immersion Theater on the ground floor of the Boston Harbor parking
garage just adjacent to the Aquarium. Questions to
<kmallory@neaq.org> or call (617) 973-5295.

Saturday, October 14, It's All in the Mouth Guided Tour, 9:15 a.m.
Why does one animal receive its food at the end of a stick, yet
another is fed by hand? During this tour, you'll see what various
animals at the Aquarium eat and the many different ways they are fed.
With guidance from an Aquarium educator, you'll see animals you may
not have seen before. Tours are limited to 12 people. An adult must
accompany children. Tours are approximately 30 minutes long. Meet
your guide at the Information Desk in the Aquarium lobby. $4 per
person for members, $8 per person plus admission for non-members.
Call (617) 973-5206 for reservations.

Wednesday, October 18, Dive Club Meeting, 6:30 p.m. at New England
Aquarium. Guests and new members always welcome. Call (617) 973-0240
for details.

Thursday, October 19, FREE Lecture, 7 p.m. Compounding Interest in
Freshwater Ecosystem Assets: The Challenge of Building Resilience
with Carl Folke, Ph.D., 1995 Pew Fellow in Conservation and the
Environment, Director, Centre for Research on Natural Resources and
the Environment, Professor, Stockholm University. Where can we best
invest to maintain freshwater ecosystem assets? This free lecture is
held in the Immersion Theater on the ground floor of the Boston
Harbor parking garage just adjacent to the Aquarium. Questions to
<kmallory@neaq.org> or call (617) 973-5295.

Saturday, October 21, The World of Reptiles Preschool Explorers'
Class, 9:30 a.m. Recommended for ages 3 to 5. This one-hour program
combines a story, a hands-on activity, and a take-home art project or
closer look at live animals. $4 per person for members; $8 per person
for non-members. An adult must accompany children -- no fee for adult
participant. The non-member price does not include Aquarium
admission. Younger siblings are welcome free of charge, but we ask
that you include them in your reservation for an accurate head-count.
Call (617) 973-5206 for reservations.

Saturday, October 21, Marblehead Family Field Trip, 10 a.m. Spend a
few hours with Aquarium educators at Chandler Hovey exploring
habitats and raising your awareness about local environmental issues.
Activities will be based on age and interest so every family member
will have a unique learning experience. Recommended for ages 5 and
up. $6 per person for members, $12 per person for non-members.
Non-member price does not include Aquarium admission. Call (617)
973-5206 to register. Meet at Chandler Hovey. All who register
receive directions.

Saturday, October 21, Gifts from the Sacred Waters: Autumn
Celebration, 11 a.m. - 4 p.m. This FREE event at the New England
Aquarium will feature traditional dancing, hands-on demonstrations
other environmental programs. The Native Americans of the Northeast
and the staff at the New England Aquarium have joined together for
the Gifts from the Sacred Waters series to relate environmental
issues affecting coastal aquatic creatures and habitats to the
traditional and contemporary activities of the Native Americans. Call
(617) 973-0296 for more information.

Sunday, October 22, The World of Reptiles Preschool Explorers' Class,
9:30 a.m. Recommended for ages 3 to 5. This one-hour program combines
a story, a hands-on activity, and a take-home art project or closer
look at live animals. $4 per person for members; $8 per person for
non-members. An adult must accompany children -- no fee for adult
participant. The non-member price does not include Aquarium
admission. Younger siblings are welcome free of charge, but we ask
that you include them in your reservation for an accurate head-count.
Call (617) 973-5206 for reservations.

Wednesday, October 25, The Year of the Child Gala Benefit, 6:30 p.m.
Hosted by the New England Aquarium Council, this fundraiser helps
support the Aquarium's educational outreach programs to inner-city
youth. This year, the event is at the Four Seasons Hotel in Boston
and features Broadway legend Ben Vereen. Call Lorrie Wilkins at (617)
973-5214 for ticket prices and more information.

Thursday, October 26, FREE Lecture, 7 p.m. The Human Portfolio:
Population Growth and Resource Economics with Norman Myers, Ph.D.,
1994 Pew Fellow in Conservation and the Environment, Consultant in
Environment and Development, UK. When does human population tip the
scales against ecological balance? This free lecture is held in the
Immersion Theater on the ground floor of the Boston Harbor parking
garage just adjacent to the Aquarium. Questions to
<kmallory@neaq.org> or call (617) 973-5295.

Friday, October 27, Fish, Fun & Fright, 6-8:30 p.m. Our 12th annual
family night for members celebrates Halloween with all the spookiness
the Aquarium has to offer! Come dressed in the spirit of the season
and we'll regale you with scary sea tales, creatures from the deep
and other treats. A light supper and soft drinks are included in the
ticket price. Invitations with ticket information mailed to all
members. Call (617) 973-6564 for more information or to RSVP.

Saturday, October 28, Witches, Fishes and Fun, 9 a.m. -5 p.m. Join us
for a day of spirited fun. Take part in the great pumpkin hunt, face
painting, spooky animal tours, arts and craft activities, games and
lots more haunted happenings. Children ages 3 to 11 wearing a costume
admitted free with a paying adult. Radio celebrities from WROR-FM
105.7 will be on-site at the Aquarium from noon to 2 p.m. Call (617)
973-6508 for more information.

Saturday, October 28, Early Birds' Guided Tour, 8 a.m. This special
earlier-than-usual tour of the galleries begins before the Aquarium
opens its doors to the general public. Learn about the early-morning
feeding routines and care. A special take-home Early Bird Bag is
provided for all participants. This hour-long program is $5 per
person for members and $10 per person plus admission for non-members.
Tours are limited to 12 people. An adult must accompany children.
Meet your guide at the Information Desk in the Aquarium lobby. Call
(617) 973-5206 for reservations.

Saturday, October 28, Marine Mammals Explorers' Class, 10 a.m.
Recommended for ages 5 to 9. Investigate animals and habitats with
hands-on aquatic activities. During this hour-long program,
participants enjoy personal attention from Aquarium educators. An
adult must accompany children -- no fee for adult participant. Cost
is $4 per person for members, $8 per person for non-members. The
non-member price does not include Aquarium admission. Call (617)
973-5206 for reservations.

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***** CONTACT US ********************

Technical questions and comments? Contact Bill Bennett at <bbennett@neaq.org>.
Substance questions and comments? Contact Sue Knapp at <sknapp@neaq.org>.

***** THAT'S ALL FOLKS *******************
Since next month is November, we'll take a look into harvesting from
our lakes, streams and oceans. Thanks for reading! -Sue Knapp,
Substitute Editor



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