Subject: Satellite tracking: Marine Technology Society Journal articles (fwd)

Mike Williamson (pita@www1.wheelock.edu)
Sun, 7 Jun 1998 07:56:54 -0400 (EDT)

Subject: more Marine Technology Society Journal articles

     Radio-tracking manatees from land and space: Tag design,
     implementation, and lessons learned from long-term study. Deutsch, CJ;
     Bonde, RK; Reid, JP. MARINE TECHNOLOGY SOCIETY JOURNAL. Spring 1998
     v32 i1 p18-29

     West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) were tracked along the
     Atlantic coast of Florida and Georgia (N = 83 manatees, n = 439 tag
     deployments, 1986-1996) and in eastern Puerto Rico (N = 8, n = 43,
     1992-1996) using conventional and satellite-based
     radio-telemetry systems. A floating radio-tag, attached by a flexible
     tether to a padded belt around the base of the tail, enabled us to
     track manatees in saltwater environments. The tag incorporated VHF
     (very high frequency) and ultrasonic transmitters for field
     tracking and tag recovery, and an Argos satellite-monitored
     transmitter for remote tracking. We located each animal in the field
     about twice per week, received more than 60,000 good-quality Argos
     locations, and recovered tags in over 90 percent of
     deployments. The tag was designed to detach from the belt when
     entangled to prevent injury or drowning, and this often led to
     premature termination of tracking bouts. We had considerable success,
     however, in retagging belted manatees without recapture (97
     percent of 392 retagging events). Most individuals were radio-tagged
     more than once (median = 3.0, maximum = 43) for a median
     total duration of 7.5 months (maximum = 6.8 years). Data obtained
     through Argos have been valuable in addressing questions
     relating to long-distance movements, site fidelity, and identification
     of high-use areas. Fine-scale analyses of manatee habitat use and
     movements may require restricting the data set to the highest location
     quality or developing new analytical techniques to incorporate
     locational error. Field tracking provided useful ancillary data on
     life-history parameters, but sample sizes were small and survival
     estimates imprecise. Modification of the existing tag design to
     include Global Positioning System (GPS) functionality, with its finer
     spatial and temporal resolution, will offer new opportunities to
     address critical research and management problems facing this
     endangered species.

     Reprints
                            Deutsch, CJ
                            US GEOL SURVEY
                            BRD, FLORIDA CARIBBEAN SCI CTR
                            GAINESVILLE, FL
                            USA
     *****************************************************************
     CRITTERCAM: An animal-borne imaging and data logging system. Marshall,
     GJ.  MARINE TECHNOLOGY SOCIETY JOURNAL. Spring 1998 v32 i1 p11-17

     CRITTERCAM is an animal-borne integrated video, audio and TDR data
     logging system designed for studying the behavior and ecology of large
     marine vertebrates at sea where systematic human observation is
     impossible. Harnessed toffee-ranging animals, CRITTERCAM enables study
     of animal behavior free of potentially disturbing human presence. One
     hundred sixty-nine CRITTERCAM deployments have been made on 22
     species. Most work has been done with harbor seals and Hawaiian monk
     seals, and to a lesser extent sperm whales (65, 25 and 25 deployments,
     respectively). Deployments revealed information and insights on
     habitat use, diving, foraging, reproductive and social behavior,
     territoriality, vocalization, and interspecific contact.

     Reprints
                            Marshall, GJ
                            NATL GEOG TELEVIS
                            NATL HIST UNIT
                            WASHINGTON, DC    20036
                            USA
     *****************************************************************
     Animal-borne GPS and the deployment of a GPS based archiving
     datalogger on Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). Sisak, MM.
     MARINE TECHNOLOGY SOCIETY JOURNAL. Spring 1998 v32 i1 p30-36

     The adaptations of a terrestrial animal-borne GPS (Global Positioning
     System) to a marine application are detailed, including pressure
     housing design and sensor suites provided to maximize fix acquisition
     success. Deployment of the Marine Archiving GPS (MAG) units
     on Hawaiian monk seal signifies the first deployment of a commercially
     available GPS based data logger on marine mammals. Capture,
     attachment and recovery procedures employed for the MAG unit are
     described and collected data presented. Eight geographic position
     fixes were obtained, five of which are suggested to be ''at sea''
     positions. Trends in miniaturization of GPS will lead to smaller more
     capable animal-borne GPS unit and a second generation of the MAG unit
     currently awaiting deployment in Hawaii is described.

     Reprints
                          Sisak, MM
                          LOTEK MARINE TECHNOL
                          ST JOHNS, NF
                          CANADA
                            USA
     *****************************************************************
     Following the invisible: Electronic tracking of marine animals. Stone,
     G; Kraus, SD. MARINE TECHNOLOGY SOCIETY JOURNAL. Spring 1998 v32 i1
     p3-4

     Reprints
                            Stone, G
                            NEW ENGLAND AQUARIUM
                            CENT WHARF
                            BOSTON, MA    02110
                            USA
     *****************************************************************
     The telemetering of marine animals: Developing a new paradigm. Kraus,
     SD. MARINE TECHNOLOGY SOCIETY JOURNAL. Spring 1998 v32 i1 p108-109

     Reprints
                            Kraus, SD
                            NEW ENGLAND AQUARIUM
                            CENT WHARF
                            BOSTON, MA    02110
                            USA
     *****************************************************************
     WhaleNet-interactive education and research utilizing advanced
     technologies. Williamson, JM. MARINE TECHNOLOGY SOCIETY JOURNAL.
     Spring 1998 v32 i1 p106-107

     Reprints
                            Williamson, JM
                            WHEELOCK COLL
                            BOSTON, MA    02115
                            USA
     *****************************************************************
     Tracking aquatic vertebrates in dense tropical forest using VHF
     telemetry. Martin, AR; daSilva, VMF. MARINE TECHNOLOGY SOCIETY
     JOURNAL. Spring 1998 v32 i1 p82-88


     As part of a broad study of river dolphins and caimans in the
     Brazilian Amazon rainforest, transmitters in the radio frequency range
     173-174 MHz were deployed on thirty-six animals over a four-year
     period. Tracking was carried out both by hand and using
     automatic, scanning, directional receiving stations situated above the
     forest canopy. Results were initially poor, due largely to
     equipment failure in such a hot, humid environment and inexperience of
     the scientific personnel in attempting such a study in dense
     rainforest. However, with modified equipment and greater experience,
     radio telemetry became a powerful and benign research tool
     without which the study would have been very substantially weakened.
     Although performance teas poorer than in open habitat,
     careful design of the receiver network, aided by field-testing of
     signal range under various conditions, provided knowledge of the
     whereabouts of most tagged animals for most of the time. After four
     deployments, expectations of at least 9-months tag longevity
     and receiving stations remaining functional 90 percent of the time are
     realistic, but success is critically dependent on adequate
     manpower for monitoring and data-collection. Although an excellent
     source of information in its own right, radio telemetry of
     cetaceans yields the greatest insights when combined with intense
     observational fieldwork.

     Reprints
                            Martin, AR
                            UNIV ST ANDREWS
                            SCH ECOL & ENVIRONM BIOL, GATTY MARINE LAB,
                            NERC, SEA MAMMAL RES UNIT
                            ST ANDREWS, FIFE
                            SCOTLAND