Subject: chapter3.txt

Michael Williamson (williams)
Mon, 16 Sep 1995 16:03:51

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From: Michael Williamson <>
Subject: chapter3.txt
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III.  Subsistence Take of Marine Mammals
      MMPA Section 101 (b) provides an exemption to take prohibitions for Alaskan Indians,
Aleuts, or Eskimos if the taking is for subsistence purposes or for purposes of creating and
selling authentic native articles of handicrafts and clothing.  The ESA also allows subsistence
takes of threatened or endangered species.  These takes, however, are limited by quota and, in
some cases, other regulation.  Two subsistence takes, bowhead whales in the Beaufort and
Chukchi Seas and the northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands, are subject to such limitations.
                             Bowhead Whales
     Catch limits for subsistence take of bowhead whales and other cetaceans are set by the
International Whaling Commission (IWC).  NMFS works cooperatively with the State of Alaska,
the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission, the North Slope Borough, and the Minerals
Management Service to manage bowhead issues.  Exhibit 6 presents the landed and strike quotas
          and actual take for bowhead whales in 1990 and 1991.
                           Northern Fur Seals
      Subsistence take of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands is governed by NMFS
regulations issued in 1986.  These regulations establish dates for an annual harvest and limit the
take by age and sex both  to protect the herd and to meet the needs of the Island residents.  In
1990, 1,077 animals were harvested on St. Paul and 164 on St. George.  The 1991 harvest
          levels were 1,645 for St. Paul and 281 on St. George.