Return-path: <WHE_WILLIAM@FLO.ORG> Received: from FLO.ORG by VMSVAX.SIMMONS.EDU (PMDF V5.0-4 #8767) id <01HXWPC0W4008ZFQIS@VMSVAX.SIMMONS.EDU> for whalenet@VMSVAX.SIMMONS.EDU; Tue, 21 Nov 1995 14:23:42 -0400 (EDT) Date: Tue, 21 Nov 1995 14:31:48 -0500 (EST) From: Michael Williamson <WHE_WILLIAM@FLO.ORG> Subject: Info: Whale calf formula (yuck!) To: whalenet@VMSVAX.SIMMONS.EDU Message-id: <951121143148.be87@FLO.ORG> Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT From: SMTP%"MARMAM@UVVM.BITNET" 20-NOV-1995 11:33:54.52 To: WHE_WILLIAM CC: Subj: Milk Formulas Date: Mon, 20 Nov 1995 13:06:32 BDB Reply-To: Marine Mammals Research and Conservation Discussion <MARMAM@UVVM.BITNET> Sender: Marine Mammals Research and Conservation Discussion <MARMAM@UVVM.BITNET> Comments: Warning -- original Sender: tag was rbaird@SOL.UVIC.CA From: Andre Barreto <POSASB@BRFURG.BITNET> Organization: UNIVERSIDADE DO RIO GRANDE - RS - BRASIL Subject: Milk Formulas To: Multiple recipients of list MARMAM <MARMAM@UVVM.BITNET> Here, at last, are the milk formulas that I promised to send to the list. Given below is a composite message using the formulae and some advices sent to me. Excuse me if you also sent a formula and your name doesn't appear here. Some messages were inadventently erased during the "storm days". Again, thanks to everyone who helped and, if you work with strandings, keep those formulae at hand. Who knows when you'll need them? -------- Most people suggested using Dr. Forrest Towsend's formula (or contacting him to obtain it), which has been used to raise a bottlenose dolphin calf, a pantropical spotted dolphin calf, and a pygmy sperm whale calf. From: Cheryl A. Messinger (email@example.com) and Randall S. Wells (MMLRWELLS@aol.com) There are two schools of thought on calf formulas. One is to make a dilute slurry of fish (preferably using the species of fish the adult dolphin eats) and an electrolyte formula such as Pedialyte. The other is to make a "milk" formula. A neonate bottlenose dolphin was raised at Gulfarium in Ft. Walton Beach, Florida, USA by their Head Trainer, Greg Siebenaler, and their veterinarian, Dr. Forrest Townsend. Their formula is as follows: Herring filets with viscera 750 ml Lactobacillus 1 Tablespoon or 3 tablets Lethicin (liquid) 1 Tablespoon "Multi-Milk" 2.5 cups (dry measure) MultiVitamin 1 tablet Osteoform 6 tablets or 1 tablespoon Safflower Oil 50 ml Taurine 250 mg Water (Bottled or boiled) 1100 ml Yield = 1800 mls Goal = 150 to 200 kcals/kg of body weight/day "Multi-Milk" is a non lactose, low carbohydrate, high protein, high fat milk replacer. It is often used in zoos. It is made by PetAg, Inc. I (800) 323-0877, Telex 62505740 ESL UD, or fax 1-708-741-5135. Elgin, Illinois, USA. Formula analysis= Protein 10 gm/100 gm Ash 1.4 gm/100 gm Fat 9 gm/100 gm Carbohydrates 1.2 gm/100 gm Moisture 78.4 gm/100 gm Taurine 63 mg/100 gm Typically with stranded animals, the first 24 to 48 hours they are tubed water or water with electrolytes, due to the fact that they are almost always dehydrated. After this, the next 24 hours is spent slowly introducing formula - where one feeding is a combination of one fourth formula mixed with three fourths water...if that goes okay, then the next feeding is a combination of one half formula and one half water...if that goes okay, then three fourths formula and one fourth water. The next feeding is straight formula. Remember that marine mammals are lactose intolerant and cannot digest cows milk unless it is treated with a substance that will break down the lactose prior to giving it to the animal. The sooner you can get the calf to suckle from a bottle, the better chance it will have of surviving. Allow it to suckle on your fingers and introduce the nipple of a bottle with your fingers. When it begins to suckle, squirt a little of the formula into its mouth, just enough so that it can get a taste of the milk. If you know what this species eats in your area, you may want to take some of that type of fish or squid and add a filet or two to flavor the milk and make it more appealing for the calf to eat. The formula needs to be watery enough to easily flow through the nipple on the bottle. It may be necessary to modify the formula based upon the clinical condition of the calf. It is critical to start with small volumes and make changes gradually so the calf's gastrointestinal system has time to adjust. The volume to be fed must be warmed prior to feeding. The rest should be refrigerated. Never use formula that is over 24 hours old. A calf will need approximately 100 Kcal per Kg of body weight for growth. Feeding frequency should be every 2-3 hours around the clock. It is extremely important to accurately weigh the calf daily to verify that it is gaining weight. If the calf will continue to nurse, then offer whatever volume per feed the calf will accept. Formula provided courtesy of Dr. Forrest Townsend, Bayside Hospital for Animals, 251 N.E. Racetrack Road, Fort Walton Beach, Florida 32547. Telephone: (904) 864-1857; Fax: (904) 863-3980. ------------------------------- Greg Early (firstname.lastname@example.org) suggested using goat's milk as a source of low lactose milk. We had a low lactose powder milk available here, but it is a good suggestion when you can't find it. -------------------------------- We also received from Monica Muelbert (email@example.com) a formula used to feed a harbour porpoise. Ingredients: Herring fillets plus viscera 8-10 parts or 53 to 59% of volume; Tap water 5 parts or 29-33% of vol.; STAT 2 parts; 12-13% of Vol. Sea Tabs 1 tab; ^Lactobacillus acidophilus^ 1tsp; STAT is a vitaminic suplement and Sea Tabs are multivitamins with iron. Instructions: Blend all of the above to a very smooth consistency and refrigerate. Mix 5 parts of formula to 3 parts of water to 2 parts of cream, and feed by stomach tube. A Standard fowl stomach tube was resisted; an 0.5-in diameter, highly flexible latex tube was substituted and accepted. The 28 lb neonatal harbour porpoise was fed 120cc of formula every 2 h. at 29 lb, the amount fed was increased to 300cc per feeding, six feedings daily. Whole fish (smelt) were begun when the weight of the animal reached 35 lbs. The harbour porpoise was maintained 3 mo, then it died. -------------------- We received from Dr. Lucio Eiras (Mar del Plata Aquarium) the formula they had been using to nurse theirs Pontoporia. Their formula is: 150 gr "palometa" (local fish) 75 gr "anchoita" (local fish - clupeid) 75 gr shrimp 50 gr milk cream 1 and 1/2 measure of milk powder 300 cc water 75 mg of B1 vit. mineral, oligoelements and vitamin suplement The fish was used without skin and bones, and all the ingredients should be put in a blender and liquefied. -------------------- We finally decided to use an adaptation of the above formula. It is as follows: 200 gr "pescadinha" (fish: Macrodon ancylodon) 20 gr no-salt butter 60 gr Nestogen Soy 60 ml Teragram (multivitaminic) "Nestogen Soy" is a low lactose milk powder from Nestle, used for babies. Instead it has maltose. The fish was used without skin, bones and viscerae. The above ingredients were put into a blender and completed to 1 liter with water, and liquefied. To the final mix we added 100 ml of physiological solution. Everything was then put through a sieve and given to the dolphin. When the dolphin stater to get worse, we changed to a solution made only of shrimp and physiological solution.