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old electrical transformers containing PCBs; and burning of some wastes in incinerators."28The

major concern over PCBs in the aquatic world is via ingestion by small organisms and fish.

These, in turn, can affect other animals (humans and/or other aquatic life) when they are eaten.

PBDEs, similar to PCBs, is a flame retardant that has been found in oceans. "PBDEs... have

been found in... fish, air, sediment, and humans."29MtBE, an octane enhancer in gasoline3 0, has

been found in oceans. It entered the waterways via the same ways gasoline enters the waterways.

TBT, a chemical added to paint to prevent growths on the bottom of vessels, has been found to

deprive the immune system against disease. 31

One more type of chemical pollution in oceans is Nonpoint Source Pollution (NPS).3 2

This occurs when soaps and detergents enter the waterways. One major source of pollution is the

over-use of soaps and detergents. Once the soap has been used, its only point of exit from a

residence is into the drain, which, in turn, pours into the ocean.

Pesticides, insecticides, and fertilizers also manifest themselves into the ocean via runoff.

The runoff can dangerously find its way into drinking water wells and underground water

sources. This runoff can increase eutrophication to a point of "oxygen depletion and resultant

fish kills."3 3Another example of runoff is agriculture fertilizer, which can directly lead to algae

blooms. Harmful Algae Bloom (known as an HAB) can produce potent neurotoxins. "These

toxins can make their way up the food chain where they may adversely affect and even kill other

life forms such as zooplankton, shellfish, fish, birds, marine mammals, and even humans."3 4

28 http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts17.html.
29 http://www.indiana.edu/~hiteslab/PDBE_nate_bo.html. 30 http://www.epa.gov/OST/drinking/mbtefact.pdf. 31 http://www.copa.org/med/pcbimmun.htm. 32 http://www.angelfire.com/ca/oceanpollution/. 33 http://www.umanitoba.ca/institutes/fisheries/eutro.html. 34 http://www.pbrla.com/swimsafety_algae.html.