An Overview of

The World of Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises
Interdisciplinary Curriculum Resources Units for
Pre-K through High School


PREFACE - To the Instructor

The World of Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises - Interdisciplinary Curriculum Resources for Pre-K through High School, was compiled for teachers of Pre-K through high school who use or are interested in using marine science topics and/or marine mammals (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) as a focus for interdisciplinary teaching units.

The material for this book was compiled from projects developed by teachers who participated in the ED 654: Field Study in Marine Science course at Wheelock College from 1990 to 1992.

This book is printed on three hole paper in the hopes that this will become a "living" resource. It is our intent that the information in this book will not only be useful in the classroom, but will also serve as a stimulus to teachers' creativity to improve, adapt, and individualize the material.

If further information or assistance is desired please feel free to contact me at Wheelock College.
To order the booklet see the end of the page.

J. Michael Williamson
Associate Professor - Science
Wheelock College
200 Riverway
Boston, MA 02215


INTRODUCTION

Marine Science is a field of research that is just beginning to be explored. Scientists have spent the last several decades formulating methods with which to observe and record the behavior of aquatic life. Today, there is a wealth of information available to the general public describing marine life.

The following publication is a compilation of teaching units created by graduate students from Wheelock College. These units contain hands-on marine science activities for children aged Preschool through High School. The curriculum of each unit varies. Students and educators can learn more about marine life biology, identification, and behavior, marine food chains, and basic oceanographic procedures.

Ocean life is an incredibly intriguing and mysterious field of study. This publication is assembled to help educators provide a stimulating, creative marine science curriculum for their students through experiential learning. The activities are designed to spark the interest of students so that they wish to continue study and pass on their knowledge gained to others.

CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS

This Marine Science publication is made possible through the contributions of twelve Wheelock College graduate students during the 1991-1992 academic year. After participating in a 10-day research program, the students were required to complete an independent project based on knowledge gained in the field and individual research. The result is this compilation of teaching units.

We wish to acknowledge the work and contribution of the following people: Karen Amodeo, Carolyn Braznell, Ann Edwards, Sarah P. Plowman, Raquel Jacobson, Patricia Lavallee, Michelle Levitt, Deirdre Painter, John T. Pirie, Heather Serrill, David Stern, Rochelle Wolfe.

Editors
Heather Serrill, Early Childhood Specialist
J. Michael Williamson, Wheelock College, Associate Professor


TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOPIC

Introduction
Contributing Authors
Author Index
Subject Index
Grade Level Index

Marine Science Units

  • THE WHALE-WATCH CURRICULUM: AN APPROACH FOR SCHOOLS UTILIZING WHALE WATCH FIELD TRIPS. 1991

  • MAP OF GULF OF MAINE TO GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE

  • A WHALE CURRICULUM UNIT

  • MAP OF WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC AREA

  • CLASS PROJECT: OCEANOGRAPHY LABORATORY PROJECTS FOR SEVENTH GRADE EARTH SCIENCE CLASSES. 1992.

  • MAP OF GULF OF MAINE AREA

  • WHALES: A CURRICULUM FOR FIRST AND SECOND GRADE, 1992

  • A WHALE UNIT CURRICULUM. 1991

  • CAPSULE HISTORY OF BLUE WHALE

  • WHALES, WHALES, WHALES: CURRICULUM FOR GRADES 3 - 5. 1991

  • HANDS-ON WHALES: A CURRICULUM PACKET FOR ELEMENTARY TEACHERS. 1991

  • WHALES: CURRICULUM RESOURCE COLLECTION. 1991

  • WHALES AND THE WORLD OF SOUND: AN EARLY CHILDHOOD CURRICULUM UNIT. 1992

  • WHALES: A TEACHING UNIT. 1991

  • WHALE CURRICULUM: A TEACHING UNIT. 1991

  • WHALE UNIT. 4th Grade. 1992


    SUBJECT INDEX

    1) ANATOMY

    Activity
    1: Explore life-size plastic whale
    2: Weigh objects to equal whale weight

    Activity
    1: Draw whale stencils
    2: Arrange whale tangrams
    3: Use cuisinaire rod activity
    4: Make a life-size whale
    5: Measure length of whales
    6: Play whale "memory" card game

    Activity
    1: Enlarge whale picture to construct actual size whale
    2: Enlarge plastic whale prototype and measure
    3: Estimate actual flipper size

    Activity
    1: Review information on whales and compare with familiar objects
    2: Cut string to match different species lengths
    3: Measure whale length with human bodies
    4: Measure objects and compare to whale length
    5: Compare human body weight to whale weight
    6: Make whale-shaped cookies

    Activity
    1: Compare size of whales to familiar objects
    2: Graph size of whales
    3: Paint scaled-down whale pictures

    Activity
    1: Use common objects to measure whale to scale
    2: Sketch practice scaled-down drawing of whale
    3: Outline whale to scale on playground

    Activity
    1: Cut string to actual whale size
    2: Measure whale size with human bodies

    Activity
    1: Compare student length to whale length
    2: Compare student length to whale fin and fluke length

    2) BEHAVIORS

    Activity
    1: Act out studied behaviors

    3) COMMUNICATION

    Activity
    1: Compare recordings of humpback and orca whale sounds

    4) DEBATES

    Activity
    1: Discuss the evolution of whales
    2: Discuss the mystery of whale Strandings

    Activity
    1: Organize a hearing for interest groups to present their views

    5) DENSITY CURRENTS

    Activity
    1: Mix cold water with colored warm water solution
    2: Mix tap water with colored salt water solution

    6) ECHOLOCATION

    Activity
    1: Use echolocation display board 3 - 6

    Activity
    1: Experiment with sound vibrations
    2: Produce sound through shapes

    7) ECOSYSTEM/COOPERATION

    Activity
    1: Assemble puzzle in small groups
    2: Create block structure together
    3: Play connecting-hands game
    4: Arrange selves as whale body parts

    8) FEEDING BEHAVIORS

    Activity
    1: Perform baleen feeding experiment

    Activity
    1: Observe strip of baleen
    2: Exhibit baleen feeding experiment
    3: Compare familiar food chains to aquatic food chains
    4: Create a food chain web as a group

    Activity
    1: Inspect krill and baleen
    2: Perform baleen feeding experiment
    3: Play "Catch the fish" game

    Activity
    1: Compare human diet and eating with whale intake
    2: Demonstrate different ways to gather food
    3: Calculate amount of food intake of whale

    Activity
    1: Draw the food chain of a right whale
    2: Create food web/add a humpback food chain

    9) FIVE SENSES

    Activity
    1: Find the popcorn game
    2: Locate the sand lance game
    3: Show sound vibration reflections
    4: Compare sound in air and water

    10) GENERAL INFORMATION

    Activity
    1: Write and illustrate a whale tale
    2: Design crossword or word search puzzle

    Activity
    1: Read and discuss humpback whale books
    2: Draw and describe a whale scene
    3: Create a book on whales

    Activity
    1: Listen to ten pieces of information about whales
    2: Listen to a whale poem and book
    3: Form whale figures with connect-the-dots and label parts
    4: Describe new knowledge of whales
    5: Listen to whale book
    6: Decode a word scramble
    7: Play "Whale Trivial Pursuit" game

    Activity
    1: Assemble a book written from whale point of view
    2: Investigate displayed whale trivia questions
    3: Play whale behavior board game

    Activity
    1: Create clues for the "Whale Detective Stories"
    2: Complete whale crossword puzzle

    Activity
    1: Read whale stories
    2: Discuss information collected
    3: Make whale displays
    4: Mold life-size sand whale
    5: Play whale word hunt game
    6: Complete whale crossword puzzle
    7: Write a cinquain about whales

    Activity
    1: Guess the organism of the week
    2: Use dichotomous key to distinguish species
    3: Organize two teams to guess stated whale characteristics

    11) HEARING IN WATER

    Activity
    1: Discover whether bones and oil sink or float
    2: Show how bone conducts souns
    3: Broadcast sound/View sound with a megaphone
    4: Discuss how noise in tanks disorient whales

    12) IDENTIFICATION

    Activity
    1: Compare and identify individual whales based on representative photographs

    Activity
    1: Draw whale stencils
    2: Arrange whale tangrams
    3: Use cuisinaire rod activity
    4: Make a life-size whale
    5: Measure length of whales
    6: Play whale "memory" card game

    Activity
    1: Match pairs of humpback fluke patterns
    2: Classify different types of fluke patterns
    3: Design and identify a new humpback fluke

    Activity
    1: View humpback whale slide presentation
    2: Create a humpback fluke directory

    Activity
    1: Play "Whale Concentration" game

    Activity
    1: Arrange humpback fluke photographs into catalogue

    Activity
    1: Use charts to identify humpback flukes

    13) MIGRATION

    Activity
    1: Draw migration pattern of particular whale
    2: Note the feeding and breeding grounds

    Activity
    1: Transcribe migration patterns on wall map
    2: Prepare a time line
    3: Identify and date specific whaling countries

    Activity
    1: Study coastal community in another country
    2: Draw migratory routes
    3: Name countries and cities along routes

    Activity
    1: Draw migration routes of gray and humpback whales
    2: Answer Student Sheet

    14) NAUTICAL KNOTS

    Activity
    1: Tie & Exhibit five nautical knots

    15) PEOPLE & WHALES

    Activity
    1: Compose letters to protect whale sanctuaries

    Activity
    1: Discuss definition of blubber and insulation
    2: Demonstrate blubber experiment
    3: Draw and send pictures to marine mammal organizations
    4: Create a petition to send to organizations

    Activity
    1: Attend whaling museum
    2: Practice methods used for whale strandings

    Activity
    1: Construct a time line of whale population change
    2: Discuss necessity of whale products used in the past and today

    Activity
    1: Research how whaling has affected the whale population

    16) SALINITY & DENSITY

    Activity
    1: Make a hydrometer
    2: Compare the density of salt and tap water at various temperatures using hydrometer

    17) SEA WATER CHEMISTRY

    Activity
    1: Examine reaction of magnesium chloride to various added elements
    2: Test for presence of chloride in sea salt

    18) "SEEING" WITH SOUND

    Activity
    1: Play "Find the Fish" game
    2: Describe all aspects of an object
    3: Examine x-ray or ultrasound pictures
    4: Inquire about a hidden object

    19) SOUND AS LANGUAGE

    Activity
    1: Discuss the various human languages
    2: Play the "Who's Missing" game
    3: Imitate whale sounds/Label objects with sounds
    4: Compare sounds of different animals
    5: Show a whale videotape/ Find instruments that make similar whale sounds

    20) SOUND IN WATER

    Activity
    1: Experiment with sounds in water
    2: Bounce a ball off of multiple surfaces

    21) SOUND PRODUCTION

    Activity
    1: Practice cracking sound in ears
    2: Investigate several wind instruments
    3: Compose head movements

    22) THERMOREGULATION

    Activity
    1: Measure temperature of shortening in cold water
    2: Measure temperature of humans at rest and active

    23) VIDEO INFORMATION

    24) WHALE WATCH DAY ACTIVITIES

    Activity
    1: Do shipboard orientation scavenger hunt
    2: See whale-watch orientation tape
    3: Play "Fluke Bingo", "Go Whale" or "Fluke Memory"
    4: Complete weather and census data sheets
    5: Gather plankton from ocean
    6: Conduct oceanographic experiments

    25) WHALE WATCH POST-VISIT ACTIVITIES

    Activity
    1: Present research projects
    2: Administer post-test
    3: Invent board games
    4: Complete math time-distance problems
    5: Examine and replicate plankton
    6: Write perspective journal entries
    7: Investigate marine-related careers
    8: Track navigation of whale or vessel
    9: Construct whales to scale
    10: Design a time line of a voyage or discovery
    11: Design an oceanic vessel
    12: Create an idea that aids the marine industry
    13: Construct a view of the ocean floor
    14: Make visual representations of oceanic food chains
    19 15: Research the whaling industry
    16: Research maritime messages
    17: Send and track a message in bottle
    18: Write sea-shanties
    19: Adopt and track a whale's migration
    20: Perform skits about environmental problems
    21: Communicate and participate in national environmental programs

    26) WHALE WATCH PRE-VISIT ACTIVITIES

    Activity
    1: Administer pre-test
    2: Brainstorm subjects for curriculum web
    3: Decide and discuss specific subject areas
    4: Cover weather and census information
    5: Show whale film
    6: Collect and provide an area for marine-life books
    7: Discuss environmental problems of whale-watch area
    8: Sing/Make-up sea shanties
    9: Create map/chart of whale-watch area
    10: Make bulletin board of whale species

    27) WHALES ARE MAMMALS

    Activity
    1: List mammals
    2: List characteristics of mammals
    3: Read book describing mammals


    To order the booklet see below:

    The World of Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises - Interdisciplinary Curriculum Resources for Pre-K through High School, was compiled for teachers of Pre-K through high school who use or are interested in using marine science topics and/or marine mammals (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) as a focus for interdisciplinary teaching units.

    The material for this book was compiled from projects developed by teachers who participated in the ED 654: Field Study in Marine Science course at Wheelock College.

    This book is printed as a pdf file on a CD-ROM in the hopes that this will become a "living" resource. It is our intent that the information in this book will not only be useful in the classroom, but will also serve as a stimulus to teachers' creativity to improve, adapt, and individualize the material.

    If further information or assistance is desired please feel free to contact me at Wheelock College. This booklet can be ordered for $20.00 from:

    J. Michael Williamson
    Associate Director
    MICS
    20 Moynihan Rd.
    South Hamilton, MA 01982